CIVIL WAR QUESTIONAIRE C. W. HICKS, 1922
Return to "My Day and Locality"
C.W. Hicks, Form #1 [NOTE: Two different forms were used. Mr. Hicks filled out Form #1. BR]
1. State your full name and present Post Office address: C.W. Hicks, Dayton, Rhea county, Tennessee. Formerly Madisonville, Monroe county, Tennessee.
2. State your age now: 79 years (form rec'd 8/18/22)
3. In what state and county were you born? State of Tennessee, Monroe County.
4. In what state and county were you living when you enlisted in the service of the Confederacy, or of the Federal Government? Tennessee, Monroe Co. Detailed to manufacture salt petre. See paper #4.
[I am inserting here the answer which was originally attached on a separate sheet and added to the end of the questionairre. BR]
....I became 18 years old and subject to military duty in December after Lincoln was elected in 1860. Next spring volunteers were enlisted and a conscript law put in force by the Confederate States to raise armies to resist coertion. On account of periodical attacks of inflammatory rheumatism I did not volunteer but was detailed by our conscript enrolling officer, Abraham Stakely, to make nitrate of potash (salt petre) for the Confederate Gov. Four of us formed a company and furnished capital to put up works at the Great Craighead cave. Seven others were detailed with us, eleven in all. We camped there and worked faithfully for two years and a half until Federal soldiers came to Sweetwater, four miles distant in Sept. 1863, when we tore down our works and scattered to our homes to prevent capture. About every two weeks we shipped several hundred pounds of nitre to the powder works at Richmond, Va. When Longstreet marching east drove the yankees from Monroe county Brig. Gen. John Crawford Vaughn and some of his men camped near Mt. Vernon in the neighborhood of their homes. One of his men in Joshua Holcomb's company took me from the field to their camp and said they put me in that company, but I signed no paper nor was sworn in. Vaughn let me go home for twenty days to have suitable clothing made, get a horse, etc. Before I was ready Vaughn was driven off without giving me any notice and the yankees held the section until the end of the war. I have written a full detailed description of the cave and works above mentioned, covering several pages, but do not suppose you want it so voluminous.
5. What was your occupation before the war? Farming in summer,logging in winter.
6. What was the occupation of your father? Farmer and lumberman.
7. If you owned land or other property at the opening of the war, state what kind of property you owned, and state the value of your property as near as you can: None, I was only 18 years old.
8. Did you or your parents own slaves? If so, how many? None.
9. If your parents owned land state how many acres: Father owned about 300 acres.
10. State as near as you can the value of the property owned by your parents, including land, when the war opened: About $250000. (This has some marks inserted between as an afterthought 2,500,00?) Say five times less than present values.
11. What kind of house did your parents occupy? State whether it was a log house or a frame house or built of other materials, and state the number of rooms it had: Two story hewed log house chunked and daubed with red clay, brick chimney, no window, rooms 18 x 20 ft. one below one above. Kitchen scalped logs chunked and daubed, stick and clay chimney, no windows, one room 18 x 20, clapboard roof. Big house shingle roof. Hiwassee District settled 1819-20. These were first cabins on the farm.
12. As a boy and young man, state what kind of work you did. If you worked on a farm, state to what extent you plowed, worked with a hoe, and did other kinds of similar work: I worked from early morning until after sundown, plowing, hoeing, grubbing, chopping, hauling, mowing by hand, cradling, etc. except one hour at noon and rarely a half holiday on Saturday to fish or hunt squirrels, the weather permitting. Prior to the civil war the few farming tools in use were clumsy, slow and inefficient. The ax and mattock only remain unimproved or displaced.
13. State clearly what kind of work your father did, and what the duties of your mother were. State all the kinds of work done in the house as well as you can remember - that is, cooking, spinning, weaving, etc. Father did the same work as myself as above described and we worked together, but he sometimes did work in the blacksmith and wood shops, or made and mended shoes for the family. Mother and sisters cooked on old pots and skillets, stoves being few and unsatisfactory until after the war, spun and wove wool into linsy and jeans for outer clothing for winter and flax for summer pants and duster coats. They cut and made by hand, stitching nearly all the clothes for the family, milked two or three cows, raised the chickens, carried water for 100 yards etc.
14. Did your parents keep any servants? If so, how many? No. Only sometimes a hired man.
15. How was honest toil - as plowing, hauling and other sorts of honest work of this class - regarded in your community? Was such work considered respectable and honorable? I think such work was considered respectable and honorable by almost the entire population. There may have been a few exceptions, who felt that it lowered their dignity for them to do manual labor. But I do not think they attributed a like effect to the labor of others.
16. Did the white men in your community generally engage in such work? They did except a few of the large land and slave owners, unless in some other business or profession.
17. To what extent were there white men in your community leading lives of idleness and having others do their work for them? Not more than one percent.
18. Did the men who owned slaves mingle freely with those who did not own slaves, or did slaveholders in any way show by their actions that they felt themselves better than respectable, honorable men who did not own slaves. Slaveholders generally mingled freely with those who did not own slaves, but some of the slave owners showed a slightly patronizing air toward the non slave holder. That they considered themselves to be in a separate class, simply because they owned slaves was shown by their visits and close friendships being mainly with slave holding families.
19. At the churches, at the schools, at public gatherings in general, did slaveholders and non-slaveholders mingle on a footing of equality? Ostensively, yes; but with a slightly superior or patronizing air with some of them. Some of the slave owners did not show that spirit, but a separate and higher class than the common people. The negroes, their management and doings were matters for conversation not interesting to non slave owners.
20. Was there a friendly feeling between slaveholders and non-slaveholders in your community, or were they antagonistic to each other? The feeling between them was friendly and not antagonistic. Sometimes strong ties of friendship existed between slave owner and non slave holder.
21. In a political contest in which one candidate owned slaves and the other did not, did the fact that one candidate owned slaves help him in winning the contest? I never heard of that matter being raised in a political contest. I do not think slave holding cut any figure in the elections. Men generally voted according to their politics, whig or democrat.
[NOTE: This is an interesting question. Some respondantas stated that slaveholders received extra votes according to how many slaves they owned. If true, this would certainly sway an election in favor of wealthy slave owners and their chosen candidates. BR]
22. Were the opportunities in your community for a poor young man - honest and industrious - to save up enough to buy a small farm or go in business for himself? Opportunities for energetic, economic, honest young men were fairly good. Even if he had to start as a farmer by renting in a few years he could save enough to make a partial payment on land and get a long time on the balance which he seldom failed to pay.
23. Were poor, honest, industrious young men, who were ambitious to make something of themselves, encouraged or discouraged by slaveholders? I know nothing about this, but I think it would depend largely on the character of the slave holder.
24. What kind of school or schools did you attend? The common public free schools, from six to eighteen years of age, 1848-1860. After the war two years to private, high grade teacher.
25. About how long did you go to school altogether? About thirty months scattered through the twelve years of free schools, two years to academic teacher. Total 4 to 5 years.
26. How far was it to the nearest school? Free school one mile. Private school five miles.
27. What school or schools were in operation in your neighborhood? Bolivar Academy at Madisonville 7 miles, Hiwassee College 9 miles, being two miles north of Madisonville. The private school I attended 5 miles from home was located on the Athens road three miles west of Madisonville on Dancing Branch at a place called Cowbell. The teacher, Rev. Alfred W. Wilson, was from Green County and an A.B. graduate of Tusculum College. He only taught there three years 1865-67.
28. Was the school in your community private or public? Public except as named above to #27.
29. About how many months in the year did it run? Two to three months according funds. In the Hiwassee District, bounded by Big Tennessee, top Chilhowee mountain, Little Tennessee and Hiwassee rivers, the sixteenth section of each Township was reserved school land and rents applied for schools.
30. Did the boys and girls in your community attend school pretty regularly? They generally attended pretty regularly while the schools lasted.
31. Was the teacher of the school you attended a man or a woman? Men. No women and but few men were considered qualified to teach and they would be totally unfit now, 1921.
32. In what year and month and at what place did you enlist in the Confederate or of the Federal Government? I never enlisted. Was conscripted and detailed to make salt petre for making powder for the Confederacy. Served from March 1861 to Sept. 1863 - 30 months.
33. State the name of your regiment, and state the names of as many members of your company as you remember: After our works ceased I was placed in Gen. J.C. Vaughn's old regiment. See ans. #4.
34. After enlistment, where was your company sent first? See paper to Q.4
35. How long after your enlistment before your company became engaged in battle? See paper to Q.4
36. What was the first battle you engaged in? None
37. State in your own way your experience in the war from this time on until the close. State where you went after the first battle - what you did, what other battles you eengaged in, how long they lasted, what the results were; state how you lived in camp, how you were clothed, how you slept, what you had to eat, how you were exposed to cold, hunger and disease. If you were in the hospital or in prison, state your experience here: None
38. When and where were you discharged? Paper to Q.4
39. Tell something of your trip home: Nothing
40. What kind of work did you take up when you came back home? Farm work one year, went to school two years then studied law and practiced thirty five years, then retired and took up farm life again.
41. Give a sketch of your life since the close of the Civil War, stating what kind of business you have engaged in, where you have lived, your church relations, etc. If you have held an office or offices, state what it was. You may state here any other facts connected with your life and experience which has not been brought out by the questions: After a year on the farm and two years in academic school, I studied in Madisonville, Monroe Co., Tenn. Then lived in Topeka, Kans. 18 mo. Moved back to Madisonville, and the farm, moved to Dayton, Tenn. March 15, 1920.
42. Give the full name of your father: Mark More Hicks, son of Charles born on Boyd's Creek at_________; in the county of: Knox county Feb. 21, 1811 state of: Tennessee. He lived at Louisville, Blount co. in Feb. 1820, when they moved to Monroe co. Give also any particulars concerning him, as official position, war services, etc.; books written by, etc. He was first a cabinet maker, then blacksmith, then farmer. Too old for Civil War.
43. Maiden name in full of your mother: Catherine Bayless. She was the daughter of William Bayless (full name) and his wife Catherine Haire (full name), who lived at Chucky river, Washington co., then Chestua, Monroe co., Tenn.
44. Remarks on ancestry. Give here any and all facts possible in reference to your parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc., not included in the foregoing, as to where they lived, office held, Revolutionary or other war services; what country the family came from to America; where first settles, county and state; always giving full names (if possible) and never referring to an ancestor simply as such without giving the name. It is desirable to include every fact possible and to that end the full and exact record from old Bibles should be appended on separate sheets of this size, thus preserving the facts from loss: See paper to Q. 44
[ I have inserted here the answer which was attached on a separate sheet. BR]
Tradition in our family is that a family of Hicks from England landed in Baltimore in the latter part of the eighteenth century, and one of the girls married Isaac Sheppard a noted cutlerist of that place. They migrated to Rockbridge county, Va. From there three brothers, Shadrach, Meshiac and Abednigo, (shortened to Shade, Mesh and Bed) moved to Sullivan Co., Tenn. amoung its earliest settlers. On of them, Shade I believe, was the father of my great grandfather, John Hicks. He and Adam Houk married sisters, the former Comfort and the latter Mary Malone, and both moved to Sevier county, Tenn. John Hicks' children were William, Isaac, John, Charles, George, Abraham, Shadrach and Sarah. Houk's children were Mary, Mary (Peggy), Rebecca, Flora, Sarah, Archimedes and John (Jack). Both John Hicks and Adam Houk moved from Sullivan to Sevier county. There John Hicks married his cousin, Peggy Houk, George Hicks married Mary Houk and my grandfather, Charles Hicks, married Sarah Houk, from whom, and my father I got most of the history of the families - father, Mark More Hicks. Grandfather, Charles moved on Boyd's Creek in Knox county where my father was born, Feb.21, 1811. From Boyd's Creek grandfather moved to Louisville, Blount county, where George Milton was born in 1817. Other children, Albert, Rolston, Narcissa, were born either here on Boyd's Creek. When the lands of the Hiwassee were put on sale in 1819 grandfather entered a quarter section of land in Monroe county, six miles southwest from Madisonville, one mile from Chestua Campground, built a cabin and moved to it in Feb. 1820. Here two more children Eliza Crawford in 1823 and Wesley Jones in 1826. The latter was the author of Hicks Manuel of Chancery Practice which he mainly wrote at Madisonville, Tenn. where he practiced law from 1856 to 1869, when he went to Knoxville and formed a partnership with Judge George Brown, a former Monroe countian. He died in 1876 and his body rests in Gray Cemetery. Four of grandfather's brothers, also, came to Monroe county in the same neighborhood, to wit: John, Abraham, Shade and George. George however, settled in Madisonville, one of the first where the town was later located, and put up a horse power cotton gin. He was a fine cabinet maker and carpenter, as his father, John, had been before him. Grandfather, Charles, and my father, Mark More, also did work of that kind. Two of George's sons, Geo. Wash. and James Crawford, followed the cabinet makers trade until their demise several years ago. That trade by hand craft has ceased. The father of Adam Houk is said to have come from Bavaria, Germany and thereby hangs a story. He and his young wife were strong, protestants, in a Roman Catholic community. She visited a sick Roman Catholic cousin and found an image of the Virgin Mary set up at the gate to be prayed to for the recovery of the sick one. In contempt Mrs. Houk took a pair of scissors swinging to her apron string and clipped off the ears of the image. That was a crime against the law of the land for which they sought to arrest her. She hid out on the banks of a river until arrangements were made and they came to America. William Hicks, son of John, was the father of the late Rev. William Hicks who was the father of Rev. W.W. Hicks of the Holston Conference, M.E. Church, South. Isaac Hicks, son of John moved to Illinois and at last account one of his sons was a prominent lawyer and Judge there. Sarah, daughter of John Hicks, married William Stone, moved to Morganton, Blount co., then to near Chestua Campground, Monroe co., and both died and are buried there, where a large number of Hicks families are buried. Rebecca Houk married George Millard, moved to Madisonville, where he built a house and lived several years, then moved to near Riceville, McMinn co. He was from Philadelphia, Pa. Another daughter of Adam and Mary Malone Houk, Eliza, as I now remember married a Chandler, William, I think it was, and they raised a family in Sevier county. One of the daughters married the late E.E. McCroskey of Knoxville. John (Jack) Houk raised several children in Sevier co. by his first wife. The late Hon. Leonidas C. Houk of Knoxville, was his son by a second wife, Arch. If Arch. Houk was ever married or left any descendants I never heard it mentioned. Like nearly all the Houk men he was a carpenter.
(extra pages): Dayton, Tenn. 8/10/1922 (addressed to John T. Moore)
....your list of questions....rec'd. some months ago and partially filled in when my health failed so that I have neglected to finish and return it....have botched it by writing with red when the black of the ribbon gave way (This form is typed....Ed.)
....I have some historical writings which may find their way into the state library, i.e.: "Fort Loudon and Environs". (A compendium of facts stated in all histories to be found - Ramsey of S.C., Martin of N.C., and La., Jones of Ga., Haywood of Tenn., Rasay of Tenn., Bancroft, Hildreth, Moore, Adair, and others, with corrections of some of their mistakes etc. This is the only one that gives exact location, size and construction of the fort, with rough maps of the site of the fort and the place of masacre. Under that part of the title "Environs" I give a history of Tellico Blockhouse, a sketch of the Cherokee Indians their location etc., Telliqua Great, Little Telliqua, Tuskegee and general location of their town on the Little Tennessee and some other places, in fact I make digressions to throw light and give information on the surroundings and conditions as they were at the time. Length about sixteen thousand words. I also have an article of several pages on "Desoto in East Tennessee" giving a sketch of his history and travels and particularly of the evidence of his route through Monroe, McMinn and Rhea counties, by way of Tellico Plains, Athens, Jolly Island at mouth of the Hiwassee and Sequatchie north of the Great Tennessee river and to Coosa, Ala., as opposed to the route from Xualla by way of Rome, Ga. as adopted by most writers. I have not decided what I will do with my writings as there is no class of them large enough to make a book. I may make a medley and finally to get the benefit of my researches and writings, and shall try to make some provision to that effect. As a last resort may place them in the archives of the state.....etc...etc., C.W. Hicks.
45. Give the names of all the members of your Company you can remember: (if you know where the Roster is to be had, please make special note of this.)
46. Give here the NAME and POST OFFICE ADDRESS of living Veterans of the Civil War, whether members of your company or not.
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